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Acoustic Emission Level II


  • The objective of the course is to present an overview of Acoustic Testing, identifying the advantages and limitations of this as compared to other methods of Non-destructive Testing.


Level II - Outline

I. Principles of AE Testing

a. Characteristics of AE Testing

i. Introductory concepts of source, propagation, measurement, display,


ii. Relationships between AE and other NDT methods

iii. Significance of applied load in AE testing

iv. Basic Math review

b. Materials and Deformation

i. Constitution of crystalline and noncrystalline materials

ii. Stress and strain

iii. Elastic and plastic deformation; Crack growth

c. Sources of AE

i. Burst emission, Continuous emission

ii. Emission signals/levels, units of amplitude measurement

iii. Sources in crystalline materials

1. Dislocations – plastic deformation

2. Phase transformations

3. Deformation twinning

4. Nonmetallic inclusions

5. Subcritical crack growth

a. Subcritical crack growth under increasing load

b. Ductile tearing under increasing load

c. Fatigue crack initiation and growth

d. Hydrogen embrittlement and cracking

e. Stress corrosion and cracking

iv. Sources in nonmetals

1. Microcracking

2. Gross cracking

3. Crazing

4. Other sources in nonmetals

v. Sources in composites

1. Fiber breakage

2. Matrix cracking

3. Fiber-matrix debonding

4. Delamination

5. Fiber pull-out, relaxation

6. Friction

vi. Other sources

1. Pressure leaks

2. Oxide and scale cracking

3. Slag cracking

4. Frictional sources

5. Liquefaction and solidification

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6. Loose parts, intermittent contact

7. Fluids, and nonsolids

8. Crack closure

d. Wave Propagation

i. Near-field impulse response

ii. Modes of propagation

iii. Mode conversion, reflection and refraction

iv. Wave velocity in material

v. Anisotropic propagation in composites

vi. Specimen geometry effects

e. Attenuation

i. Geometric attenuation

ii. Dispersion

iii. Scattering, diffraction

iv. Attenuation due to energy loss mechanisms

v. Attenuation vs. frequency

f. Kaiser and Felicity Effects, and Felicity Ratio

i. In metals

ii. In composites

iii. In other materials

g. Terminology (ASTM E1316)

II. Sensing the AE Wave

a. Transducing processes (piezoelectricity, etc.)

b. Sensors

i. Construction

ii. Conversion efficiencies

iii. Calibration (Sensitivity curve)

c. Sensor attachment

i. Coupling materials

ii. Attachment devices

iii. Waveguides

d. Sensor utilization

i. Flat response sensors

ii. Resonant response sensors

iii. Integral-electronics sensors

iv. Special sensors (directional, mode responsive)

v. Sensor selection

III. Instrumentation and Signal Processing

a. Cables

i. Coaxial cable

ii. Twisted pair cable

iii. Noise problems in cables

iv. Impedance matching

v. Connectors

b. Signal conditioning

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i. Preamplifiers

ii. Amplifiers

iii. Filters

iv. Units of gain measurement

c. Signal detection

i. Threshold comparator

ii. Units of threshold measurement

iii. Sensitivity determined by gain and/or threshold

d. Signal processing

i. Waveform characteristics

1. Amplitude analysis

2. Pulse duration analysis

3. Rise time analysis

4. Event and event rate processing


ii. Discrimination techniques

iii. Distribution techniques

e. Source location techniques

i. Single channel location

ii. Linear location

iii. Planar location

iv. Other location techniques

f. AE test systems

i. Single channel systems

ii. Multi-channel systems

iii. Dedicated industrial systems

g. Accessory techniques

i. Audi indicators

ii. X-Y and strip chart recording

iii. Oscilloscopes

iv. Magnetic recorders

v. Others

h. Advanced signal processing techniques

i. Signal definition

ii. Signal capture

iii. Frequency analysis

iv. Pattern recognition

IV. AE Test Techniques

a. Factors affecting testing equipment selection

i. Material being monitored

ii. Location and nature of emission

iii. Type of information desired

iv. Size and shape of test part

b. Equipment calibration and setup for test

i. Calibration signal generation techniques

ii. Calibration procedures

iii. Sensor placement

iv. Adjustment of equipment controls

v. Discrimination technique adjustments

c. Loading procedures

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i. Type of loading

ii. Maximum test load

iii. Load holds

iv. Repeated and programmed loadings

v. Rate of loading

d. Special test procedures

i. High temperature/low temperature tests

ii. Interrupted tests (including cyclic fatigue)

iii. Long term tests

iv. Tests in high noise environments

e. Data display

i. Selection of display mode

ii. Use and reading of different kinds of display

f. Noise sources and pre-test identification techniques

i. EM noise

ii. Mechanical noise

g. Precautions against noise

i. Electrical shielding

ii. Electronic techniques

iii. Prevention of movement

iv. Attenuating materials and applications

h. Data interpretation

i. Recognizing noise in the recorded data

ii. Noise elimination by data filtering techniques

iii. Relevant and nonrelevant AE response

i. Data Evaluation

i. Methods for ranking, grading, accepting/rejecting

ii. Comparison with calibration signals

iii. Source evaluation by complementary NDT methods

j. Reports

i. Purpose

ii. Content and structure


V. Codes, Standards, Procedures and Societies

i. Guide-type standards (glossaries, calibration, etc)

ii. Standardized/codified AE test procedures

iii. User-developed test procedures

iv. Societies active in AE

VI. Applications of AE Testing

a. Laboratory Studies (Material Characterization) – At least 3 categories

i. Crack growth and fracture mechanics

ii. Environmentally assisted cracking

iii. Dislocation movement (metals)

iv. Clarifying deformation mechanisms (composites)

v. Phase transformations and phase stability

vi. Creep

vii. Residual stress

viii. Corrosion

ix. Fatigue

x. Rupture

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xi. Ductile/brittle transition

xii. Other material characterization applications

b. Structural Applications – At least 4 categories

i. Pressure vessels (metal)

ii. Storage tanks (metal)

iii. Composite pressure vessels/storage tanks

iv. Piping and pipelines

v. Bucket trucks

vi. Aircraft

vii. Bridges

viii. Mines

ix. Dams, earthen slopes

x. Pumps, valves, etc.

xi. Rotating plant

xii. In-process weld monitoring

xiii. Leak detection and monitoring

xiv. Other structural applications

Who Should Attend

  • The course is designed for anyone who is interested in satisfying the classroom training requirements for Acoustic Testing Level II certifications or who needs a thorough knowledge and practical experience of Acoustic Testing Method.


5 Days

Start Date End Date Country City

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